It gives a broad idea about various aspects of Ecosystem Services.

India has a rich history of environmental legislation. The Constitution of India has provisions for the protection and improvement of the environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife. The environmental laws in India are guided by environmental legal principles and focus on the management of specific natural resources, such as forests, minerals, or fisheries.

Some of the key environmental laws in India are:

1. The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

2. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974

3. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981

4. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986

5. The energy conservation act, 2001

6. Biological diversity act 2002

7. Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 (FRA)

8. The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010

9. Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act, 2016

These laws aim to protect the environment and promote sustainable development in India. They cover a wide range of issues such as air pollution, water pollution, waste management, forest conservation, biodiversity conservation, and climate change.

An Environmental Management System (EMS) is a set of policy measures, management actions, operating procedures, documentation and record keeping with defined responsibilities and accountability of personnel within an organisation to address its environmental issues. It is a problem identification and problem-solving tool, which can be implemented in an organisation in different ways depending upon the needs and objectives of an organisation. It provides a framework through which an organisation can minimise the harmful effects of its activities on the environment. An EMS is a programme of continuous environmental improvement following a defined sequence of steps drawn from established project management practice and routinely applied in business management

Sound is a result of pressure vibrations in the air which act on the surface of the eardrum. The unpleasantness and harmful effects of noise depend on factors like intensity of sound waves, frequency, time of exposure and intermittence or continuation of sound. Noise is measure in Decibel scale.

Mangroves are peculiar group of salt tolerant plants having some special ecological adaptations such as viviparous germination, presence of pneumatophores and salt excretory glands which constitute an important biodiversity in the estuarine regions of the world. Mangrove forests help in carbon sequestration and are most productive and biologically important ecosystems of the world because they provide important and unique ecosystem services to human society and coastal and marine systems. They provide nesting and breeding habitat for fish and shellfish, migratory birds, crocodiles and sea turtles. These forests are very useful for reduction of greenhouse effects and reducing the intensity of cyclones and tsunami. These forests also provide food, fodder, timber, medicinal plants which are very useful for maintaining ecological balance in the coastal regions of the world.

Prevention and control techniques of gaseous pollutants (Combustion, Absorption, Adsorption & Condensation); Prevention and control methods of particulates matter (Settling Chambers, Cyclone Separators, Wet Collectors (Scrubbers), Bag Filters and Electrostatic Precipitators); Sources of Water Pollution & its Control; Soil pollution & its Control; Noise Pollution & its Control.

Meteorology is the science dealing with the atmosphere and its phenomena, including both weather and climate.

Human activities cause the rapid rise global  average temperature. Recently Global warming is the important environmental challenge. There is a link between global warming and ozone layer depletion. Global warming potential (GWP) is a weighting factor that allows comparisons to be made between the cumulative global warming impact over a specified period of time of some greenhouse gas and a simultaneous emission of an equal mass of CO2.

This course emphasizes the basic knowledge on cleaner technology in agriculture including the development and utilization of biofertilizers and biopesticides for achieving agricultural sustainability.