There are many types of vaccines. Different types or formulations affect how they are used, how they are stored, and how they are administered. If they are to be safe and effective, it is vital to be familiar with the different types and to know how to handle them.

Different vaccines can cause different adverse reactions, and it is important to recognize what these may be. Can you identify the contraindications for vaccination and know which present an additional risk?

What special considerations should you make when immunizing pregnant women or immunocompromised clients?

This course will explain the different types of vaccine and the main routes of administration. You will learn about the main vaccine reactions and the importance of understanding contraindications – as ignoring these could lead to vaccine reactions. Finally, you will look at public concern over vaccines and consider some rumours about vaccine safety that have been disproved by research.



As a basic biological science, microbiology uses and develops tools for probing the fundamental processes of life .As an applied biological science, microbiology deals with many important practical problems in medicine, agriculture, and industry. Microorganisms existed on Earth for billions of years before plants and animals appeared, and we will see in later chapters that the diversity of microbial life far exceeds that of the plants and animals.

Like any science, microbiology owes much to its past. Although able to claim early roots, the science of microbiology didn’t really develop until the nineteenth century. Since that time, the field has exploded and spawned several new but related fields. We retrace these pathways of discovery now.